In A Nutshell
Portable water filters have improved in recent years — manufacturers are now producing units that filter contaminants the size of nanometers (a billionth of a meter).
The best portable water filters available today are:
- The Lifesaver Bottle 6000. Filters down to 0.015 microns (15 nanometers). This means will filter all pathogens out of water, including viruses. Costs about $215.
- The Sawyer Products Complete 4-Liter Filtration System. Filters down to 0.1 microns. This includes lmost all pathogens, except certain viruses. Costs about $180.
- The Katadyn Pocket Water Microfilter. Filters down to 0.2 microns. Costs about $340.
Another reliable method of killing all pathogens in water is using chlorine dioxide tablets, such as Katadyn Micropur Purification Tablets.
Portable filters are designed primarily to remove pathogens from outdoor water. Some units also include carbon filters to reduce VOCs and toxic metals in the water.
These are the three type of pathogens you want to remove from wilderness water:
Protozoan Cysts (Cryptosporidium parvum, Giardia lamblia)
Size: 1 – 20 microns
Type of filtration needed to remove: Microfiltration, ozonation or reverse osmosis, UV (ultraviolet light)
Bacteria (E. coli, Salmonella, Campylobacter jejuni, Yersinia entercolitica, Leptospira interrogans, etc.)
Size: 0.1 – 10 microns
Type of filtration needed to remove: Microfiltration needed, ozonation or reverse osmosis, UV (ultraviolet light)
Virsuses (hepatitis A, rotavirus, enterovirus, norovirus, Norwalk virus)
Size: 0.025 – 0.1 microns (25 nanometers to 100 nanometers)
Type of filtration needed to remove: Ultrafiltration needed – ozonation or reverse osmosis, UV (ultraviolet light)
Notes On The Pathogens
Protozoan cysts and viruses are present in surface water that has become contaminated by animal or human waste, principally feces. Bacteria, including many beneficial bacteria, naturally occur in water.
Viruses are rarely encountered in North American wilderness waters. Pesticides, herbicides and other toxins and pollutants associated with agriculture and urban development do not normally impact water sources found deep in wilderness areas.
Lifesaver Bottle 6000
The Lifesaver Bottle was introduced in 2004, and it was the first portable filter to have the capability of removing harmful viruses from water sources. It does this because it able to filter down to 0.015 microns, which is ultrafiltration levels. It also has a carbon filter, which reduces pesticides, endocrine disrupting compounds, medical residues, and heavy metals.
The bottle’s cartridge service rating is 6,000 liters (1,585 U.S. gallons). However, one drawback about this system is that there’s no indication as to when the filters need replacing.
Overall, this an excellent filter for overseas travel.It’s the only self-contained filter that eliminate all water-borne pathogens.
The Lifesaver Bottle 6000 is available from Amazon for about $215.
Sawyer Products Complete 4-Liter Filtration System
The Sawyer Filtration System is an excellent kit, that filters down to 0.02 microns, using a hollow fiber membrane. That’s almost on par with the Lifesaver, with it’s 0.015 micron filtration. Thus, the Sawyer can filter out most pathogen, including viruses.
What’s great about this system is that it almost never needs a replacement filter. The manufacturer has a guarantee that it will filter 1 million gallons before replacement. However, long-time users report the water reservoir bags need replacing after a couple of years.
The Sawyer System is gravity-fed, and allows you to purify 4 liters of water in about 10 minutes.
The Sawyer Products Complete 4-Liter Filtration System is available from Amazon for about $180.
Katadyn Pocket Water Microfilter
The Katadyn was the go-to filter for backpackers before the Lifesaver and the Sawyer systems came along. With a filtration member rated at 0.2 microns, it is still a dependable choice. The silver-impregnated ceramic element is effective against bacteria and protozoa, and it will filter 50,000 liters (13,000 gallons) before a replacement is needed.
The Katadyn Pocket Water Microfilter is available from Amazon for about $340.
Chlorine Dioxide Tablets
Chlroine dioxide tablets are a good choice for water purification. They will destroy all pathogen in water. Also, they leave no taste in the water (unlike iodine tablets). Like all water treatment tablets, these take 15 minutes to destroy viruses and bacteria, 30 minutes to destroy Giardia, and 4 hours to destroy Cryptosporidium.
I recommend the Katadyn Micropur MP1 Purification Tablets. This is only tablets registered with the EPA.
You can boil water for one minute to destroy all pathogens. It is a foolproof treatment method. Only one minute of boiling is required. The most heat-resistant pathogen out there is the virus hepatitis A. Even it is believed to expire in less than 1 minute in water heated to 98°C/208°F. It is because of hepatitis A (or maybe just tradition) that some health organizations and wilderness rangers persist in recommending at least 1 minute of boiling time to purify water, and 3 minutes at higher elevations.